The set of rules presented herein has been established as a tool to distinguish what we know from what we do not know for sure – to distinguish science from beliefs.
§1 A scientific concept consists of a well-defined concept having a well-defined capability of prediction within a well-defined context.
§2 A scientific concept consists of statements that are logically valid conclusions – deduced from premises that are themselves logically valid conclusions or axioms.
§3 A scientific concept can only be validated by comparison of predictions deduced from that concept with measurements. Whenever predictions differs from measurements by more than the stated capabilities there is something wrong with the concept or the test of it.
§4 Data, and precise information about how that data has been obtained, must be readily available for anyone having rights to the referring document.
§5 A proper measurement report contains traceable values, units, quantified accuracy, well-defined measurands and a well-defined context.
The following set of definitions are essential for correct interpretation of these rules:
|axiom: a statement that is self-evidently true|
|calibration: comparison of a measurement with a reference having a known uncertainty|
|capability: difference between predictions and measurements|
|comparison: quantification of the difference between|
|concept: any expression of a relationship between two or more measurands|
|context: a set of those things that have an influence on the predicted value|
|data: measured or predicted value of a measurand – or a relationship between measurands|
|deduction: logically valid combination of premises into a conclusion by means of mathematics and logic|
|definition: identification of the set of properties that distinguish a measurand or a concept from all others|
|false: a statement that can be contradicted, within the defined context, by a logically valid statement|
|logically valid: the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion – it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false.|
|mathematics: a consistent and logically valid system of symbols and operations on these symbols|
|measurand: well-defined property that can be quantified|
|measurement: quantify a measurand by an enumerated multiple of a unit|
|precise information: sufficient for replication by independent persons using similar tools.|
|prediction: quantification of a measurand without any foreknowledge about an eventual measurement result|
|readily available: available, without further request, by anyone having rights to the referring document|
|reference: a reference measurement having an unbroken chain of calibrations to the definition of the unit.|
|relationship: a quantified change in measurand A is followed by a quantified change in measurand B|
|statement: a logical proposition that can be either true or false within the defined context|
|test: an activity that can verify a part of a concept|
|traceable: having an unbroken chain of calibrations to the definition of the unit|
|true: a statement that can not be contradicted, within the defined context, by a logically valid statement|
|unit: a well-defined quantity that has one unique value|
|validated: confirm the truth of a concept within a well-defined context|
|verify: demonstrate the truth of|
|wrong: not true|
This is the nutshell version of:
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