The set of rules presented herein has been established as a tool to distinguish what we know from what we do not know for sure – to distinguish science from beliefs.
§1 A scientific argument consists of clearly stated premises, inferences and conclusions.
§2 A scientific premise is verifiable. Premises and their sources are identified and readily available for independent verification.
§3 A scientific inference is logically valid.
§4 A scientific conclusion is deduced by an explicit application of axiom, definitions and theorems or measured properties and scientific concepts that have been verified or validated.
§5 A scientific concept consists of statements that are logically valid conclusions deduced from premises that are themselves logically valid conclusions, definitions or axioms.
§6 A scientific concept is a well-defined concept having a well-defined capability of prediction within a well-defined context.
§7 A scientific concept can only be validated by comparison of predictions deduced from that concept with measurements. Whenever predictions differs from measurements, by more than the combined uncertainty of the measurement and the claimed capability of the concept, there must be something wrong with the concept – or the test of it.
§8 A scientific concept can only be referred to as validated for the context covered by the validating tests.
§9 A scientific statement is based on verifiable data. Data and precise information about how that data was obtained are readily available for independent verification.
§10 Whenever data are corrected or disregarded, both uncorrected and corrected data are provided together with a scientific argument for the correction.
§11 A scientific measurement report contains traceable values, units and uncertainty for well-defined measurands in a well-defined context.
§12 A scientific prediction report contains values, units and claimed capability for well-defined measurands in a well-defined context.
|argument: a conclusion inferred from a set of premises|
|axiom: a statement that is self-evidently true and accepted as a true starting point for further deduction|
|calibration: comparison of a measurement with a reference having a known uncertainty|
|capability: maximum difference between predictions and measurements|
|comparison: quantification of the difference between|
|concept: any expression of a relationship between two or more measurands|
|conclusion: a statement inferred from one or more premises|
|context: a set of those things that have an influence on a predicted value|
|corrected: replace a measured or predicted value with another value|
|data: measured or predicted value of a measurand or relationship between measurands|
|deduction: logically valid combination of premises into a conclusion by means of mathematics and logic|
|definition: identification of the set of properties that distinguish a measurand or a concept from all others|
|disregard: remove a value from a series of data used as a premise|
|document: an identified collection of words, numbers and symbols|
|explicit: stated in a manner that is only open to the intended interpretation|
|false: a statement that can be contradicted, within the defined context, by a logically valid statement|
|hypothesis: a propounded statement or concept that has not been verified or validated|
|inference: logical connection between premises and conclusion|
|logically valid: the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion – it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false.|
|mathematics: a consistent and logically valid system of symbols and operations on these symbols|
|measurand: well-defined property that can be quantified|
|measurement: a measurand quantified by a value and a unit|
|precise information: sufficient for replication by an independent persons using equal tools|
|prediction: quantification of a measurand without any foreknowledge about an eventual measurement result|
|premise: a statement used to infer a conclusion|
|property: an attribute of an entity or of the relationship between entities|
|prove: verify a statement by means of theorems.|
|readily available: available without further request|
|reference: a measurement having an unbroken chain of calibrations to the definition of the unit.|
|relationship: a quantified change in measurand A is followed by a quantified change in measurand B|
|source: identified document containing the premise|
|statement: a logical proposition that can be either true or false within the defined context|
|test: an activity that can verify a part of a concept or validate a concept|
|theorem: a concept that has been proven and that can now be used as the basis of other proofs.|
|traceable: having an unbroken chain of calibrations to the definition of the unit|
|true: a statement that can not be contradicted, within the defined context, by a logically valid statement|
|uncertainty: quantified accuracy|
|unit: a well-defined quantity that has one unique value|
|validate: demonstrate the truth of a concept within a well-defined and applicable context|
|verify: demonstrate the truth of|
|wrong: not true|
This work is still under construction, and can only be reproduced on the condition that the original source is identified by including a link to: